Transformation of Sentences

Transformation of Sentences. Rules of Transformation of Sentences. Change affirmative into negative. Change the Assertive into Interrogative. Change the Assertive into Exclamatory. Change the Exclamatory into Assertive. Change the Assertive into Imperative. Change the Assertive into Optative.

Rules of Transformation of Sentences

সাধারণত অর্থের পরিবর্তন না করে sentence-এর পরিবর্তিত রূপকে Transformation of Sentence বলে। Sentence পরিবর্তনের বেশ কিছু Rules আছে এগুলো অনুসরণ করলে সহজেই Transformation of Sentence করা যায়।

Transformation of Sentences

Change Affirmative into Negative

Rule-1: Affirmative Sentence- only থাকলে negative করার সময় এর পরিবর্তে প্রথমে ব‌্যক্তি বুঝালে none but, বস্তু বুঝালে nothing but এবং বয়স বুঝালে only-এর পরিবর্তে not more বসে। অন‌্য কোনো পরিবর্তন হয় না।

Example:
1. Only he can do this.
Negative- None but he can do this.
2. Allah alone can help us.
Negative- None but Allah can help us.

Rule-2: Affirmative Sentence- must থাকলে তাকে negative করার সময় must-এর পরিবর্তে cannot but/ cannot help বসে। তবে cannot help-এর পরে যে verb আসে তার সাথে ing যোগ করতে হয়।

Example:
1. We must submit to our fate.
Negative- We cannot but submit to our fate.
2. We must obey our parents.
Negative- We cannot help obeying our parents.

Rule-3: Affirmative Sentence- every/ all থাকলে তাকে negative করার সময় every/ all-এর পরিবর্তে There is not বসে + every/ all পরের অংশ বসে + but/ who বসে + sentence-এর বাকি অংশ বসে।

Example:
1. Everybody hates a liar.
Negative- There is nobody who does not hate a liar.
2. Every mother loves her child.
Negative- There is no mother but loves her child.

Rule-4: কোনো কোনো Sentence-কে negative করার সময় উক্ত sentence-এর affirmative word-টিকে negative form-এ বসিয়ে তার পূর্বে no/ not বসাতে হয়।

Example:
1. He is a good student.
Negative- He is not a bad student.
2. Man is mortal.
Negative- Man is not immortal.

Rule-5: As soon as যুক্ত Affirmative Sentence-কে negative করার সময় As soon as এর পরিবর্তে no sooner had .... than বসে। had-এর পর মূল verb-এর Past Participle form হয়।

Example:
1. As soon as she reached the school, the bell rang.
Negative- No sooner had she reached the school than the bell rang.

Rule-6: Comparative Degree negative করার সময় positive degree- পরিবর্তন করতে হয়। এক্ষেত্রে যার সাথে তুলনা করা হয় সেই ব‌্যক্তি, বস্তু বা প্রাণীকে প্রথমে বসাতে হয়।

Example:
1. Babar was greater than Humayun.
Negative- Humayun was not as great as Babar.
2. My pen is finer than yours.
Negative- Your pen is not as fine as mine.

Rule-7: Superlative Degree যুক্ত Affirmative Sentence-কে negative করতে হলে প্রথমে no other বসে + ‍superlative এর পরের অংশ + verb + as + superlative-এর positive form + as + প্রদত্ত sentence-এর subject বসে।

Example:
1. Roni is the best boy in the class.
Negative- No other boy in the class is as good as Roni.
2. Bill Gates is the richest person in the world.
Negative- No other person in the world is as rich as Bill Gates.

কিছু বিপরীতার্থক শব্দ নিম্নে দেয়া হলো:

1. friend foe 19. honour dishonour
2. mortal immortal 20. healthy unhealthy
3. moral immoral 21. rich poor
4. regular irregular 22. love hate
5. active inactive 23. remember forget
6. wise unwise 24. grateful ungrateful
7. pleasant unpleasant 25. agreed disagreed
8. honest dishonest 26. sincere insincere
9. honesty dishonesty 27. wise unwise/ foolish
10. doubtful undoubtful/ sure 28. punctual late
11. pleased unpleased/annoyed 29. comfortable uncomfortable
12. happy unhappy 30. ordinary extraordinary
13. literate illiterate 31. willing unwilling
14. responsible irresponsible 32. obey disobey
15. hard easy 33. obedient disobedient
16. absent present 34. solvent insolvent
17. real unreal 35. right wrong
18. always never

Change the Assertive into Interrogative

Rule-1:Auxiliary verb-যুক্ত Assertive Sentence-কে Interrogative করার সময় Auxiliary verb টি subject-এর পূর্বে বসে। Sentence টি affirmative থাকলে negative এবং negative থাকলে affirmative করতে হয়।

Example:
1. We can do the work. Interrogative- Can't we do the work?
2. He was not a bad student.
Interrogative- Was he a bad student?

Rule-2: None/ nobody/ no one-কে Interrogative করতে হলে এদের পরিবর্তে Who বসে + বাকি অংশ + প্রশ্নবোধক চিহ্ন বসে।

Example:
1. Nobody could ever count my love for you. Interrogative- Who could ever count my love for you?
2. Nobody loves a liar.
Interrogative- Who loves a liar?

Rule-3: Everyone/ Everybody/ all-কে Interrogative করতে হলে এদের পরিবর্তে Who বসে + don't/ doesn't/ didn't বসে + মূল verb এর পরের অংশ + (?) বসে।

Example:
1. Everybody wishes to be happy.
Interrogative- Who does not wish to be happy?
2. All loves flowers.
Interrogative- Who does not love flowers?

Rule-4: Never থাকলে Interrogative- ever বসে।

Example:
1. Assertive- I never drink tea. Interrogative- Do I ever drink tea?

Rule-5: (i) সাহায‌্যকারী verb বিহীন Present Simple Tense-এর Assertive Sentence-কে Interrogative করার নিয়ম:
প্রথমে don't/ doesn't বসে + প্রদত্ত seb + মূল verb + বাকি অংশ + Question mark.

Example:
1. Assertive- He plays football. Interrogative- Doesn't he play football?

(ii) সাহায‌্যকারী verb বিহীন Past Simple Sentence-এর Assertive-কে Interrogative করতে-
প্রথমে didn't + প্রদত্ত sub + মূল verb-এর base form + বাকি অংশ + Question mark.

1. Assertive- Sumon killed a snake.
Interrogative- Didn't Sumon kill a snake?

Change the Assertive into Exclamatory:

Rule-1: প্রথমে what (a)/ How বসে + adjective + adjective-এর পরের অংশ (থাকলে) + subject + verb + (!) বসে।

Example:
1. The scenery is very charming. Exclamatory- How charming the scenery is!
2. The dove is a very beautiful bird. Exclamatory- What a beautiful bird the dove is!

Rule-2: Assertive Sentence- wish থাকলে Exclamatory করার সময় sentence-এর শুরুতে If/ had বসে। (had-এর মূল verb Past Participle হয়।)

Example:
1. I wish I had the wings of a bird. Exclamatory- Had I the wings of a bird!
2. I wish I were the richest man in the world. Exclamatory- If I were the richest man in the world!

Change the Exclamatory into Assertive:

Rule-1: Exclamatory Sentence-কে Assertive-এ পরিবর্তন করার সময় উক্ত sentence-এর শেষের subject verb-কে প্রথমে বসাতে হয় + What/ how-এর পরিবর্তে very এবং তার পূর্বে subject countable singular number হলে a বসে + adjective + বাকি অংশ থাকলে + ! চিহ্ন থাকে না (.) বসে।

Example:
1. What a great poet Nazrul is! Assertive- Nazrul is a great poet.
2. How fine the picture is! Assertive- The picture is very fine.

Rule-2: If/ had দ্বারা Exclamatory Sentence শুরু হলে একে Assertive করার সময় প্রথমে subject + wish বসে + পুনরায় subject + verb + বাকি অংশ বসে।

Example:
1. If I were a billionaire! Assertive- I wish I were a billionaire.
2. Had I the wings of a bird! Assertive- I wish I had the wings of a bird.

Rule-3: Hurrah, Alas ইত‌্যাদি যুক্ত Exclamatory Sentence-কে Assertive করার সময় প্রথমে Subject + hurrah-এর পরিবর্তে rejoice অথবা Alas-এর পরিবর্তে sorry + that + পুনরায় subject + verb + বাকি অংশ বসে।

Example:
1. Hurrah! I have got the first prize. Assertive- I rejoice that I have got the first prize.
2. Alas! you are undone. Assertive- Sorry that you are undone.

Change the Assertive into Imperative:

Rule-1: Assertive Sentence-কে Imperative করার সময় মূল verb-টির Present form sentence-এর প্রথমে বসে + verb-এর পরের অংশ বসে।

Example:
1. You should never tell a lie. Imperative- Never tell a lie.
2. You should think before you leap. Imperative- Think before you leap.

Change the Assertive into Optative:

Rule-1: Assertive Sentence-কে optative করার সময় প্রথমে may বসে + subject + auxiliary verb উঠে গিয়ে বাকি অংশ বসে।

Example:
1. I wish Allah might bless you. Optative- May Allah bless you.
2. You will prosper in life. Optative- May you prosper in life.

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