English Grammar for Admission Test & Job Exam

Generally, Basic English Grammar contains the following:

Parts of speech, Noun, Pronoun, Person, Antecedent, Adjective, Comparison of Adjectives, Uses of some Adjectives, Verbs, Causative verbs, Tense, Tense at a glance, Infinitive, Gerund, Participle, Adverb, Preposition, Some Important Appropriate Prepositions, Some Phrasal Verbs, Conjunction, Interjection, Interchange of parts of speech (Rules), Interchange of parts of speech (Words), Interchange of parts of speech (Sentences), Kinds of sentence, Basic Sentence Patterns, Number, Gender, Case.

And Exam Based English Grammar contains the following:

Right form of verbs, Subject verb agreement, Correction, Transformation of Sentences (chart), Conversion of Sentences, Transformation of Sentences, Voice, Passive voice for speaking and writing, Where Passive voice is used, Voice at a glance, Article, Narration, Passage narration, Completing sentences, Tag-question, Linking words, Common idioms and Phrases, Flow chart, Notion and functions, WH-questions (Exam based), Translation of Passage into English, Phrases, Clauses, Determiner, Modifier, Head word, Punctuation, Use of Capital Letters, Joining Sentences, Combination of Sentences.

We will discuss everything part by part gradually on separate pages.

Tense Consistency

কাজ সম্পন্ন করার সময় অনুযায়ী Tense নির্ধারিত হয়। একই সময়ে কাজের ক্ষেত্রে আমরা একই ধরণের Tense ব্যবহার করি। কিন্তু কাজ সংগঠিত হওয়ার সময় যখন ভিন্ন হয় তখন প্রয়োজন অনুযায়ী Tense ভিন্ন হয়। যেমন-

✓ When Rupok entered the class, the lecture ..... so he found it hard to follow.

(a) just began (b) had already begun (c) had already ended (d) was about to begin
Ans: b.

ব্যাখ্যা : এখানে just began অপশনটি ব্যবহার করলে বাক্যের অর্থ সংগতিপূর্ণ হয় না। কারণ, class এইমাত্র শুরু হলে Rupok সহজে বুঝতে পারত। একই ভাবে was about to begin এবং had already ended অপশন দুটি দ্বারা সংগতিপূর্ণ অর্থ আসে না। Rupok এর তখনই ‍বুঝতে কষ্ট হবে যখন সে class এর কিছু অংশ miss করেছে। তাই সঠিক উত্তর হবে had already begun.

একইভাবে নিচের Sentence গুলে লক্ষ করি
✓ Do not make so much noise, Shibli (is trying) to study for his admission test.
✓ The town where I live is very different now. It (has changed) a lot.
✓ It was the first time that I (had read) the book.
✓ By this time next year, I (will have taken) all the exams.
✓ They (have not had) this much fun since they came to study at this school.

বাক্যগুলোর ব্র্যাকেটের অংশে অন্য কোন tense ব্যবহার করলে সংগতিপূর্ণ অর্থ আসবে না। Tense consistency বুঝতে পারলে tense এর sequence সহজে করতে পারা যাবে।

Quick tips on Parts of Speech

Verb কে কি/কাকে দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে object পাওয়া যায়। যেমন- Rubiya gave him a book.
Rubiya কি দিয়েছে- a book (direct object) কাকে দিয়েছে- him (indirect object).

আবার লক্ষ্য করি-
He likes swimming. (সে কি পছন্দ করে- swimming)
Swimming is a good exercise.
উভয় বাক্যে swimming noun. কারণ, subject এবং object হিসেবে কেবল noun ও pronoun বসে। আবার swimming এখানে gerund. কারণ, verb + ing হয়ে noun এর কাজ করছে। Verb + ing হয়ে যদি adjective এর কাজ করে তাহলে তাকে participle বলে। যেমন-
I saw a swimming boy. He mended a broken chair. উভয় বাক্যে swimming ও broken, adjective এর কাজ করছে। তাই swimming (verb + ing) present participle এবং broken (v2) past participle.

আবার লক্ষ্য করি-
Sentence দুটিকে যদি আমরা কি দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করি তাহলে object পাওয়া যায়। A swimming boy (আমি কি দেখলাম) ও a broken chair (সে কি মেরামত করল) উভয়ই object. অর্থাৎ তারা noun phrase. (phrase হল একগুচ্ছ শব্দ যা একটি part of speech এর ন্যায় কাজ করে)।

আবার, verb কে কিভাবে দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে adverb of manner পাওয়া যায়।
He works diligently. (adverb of manner)
He works with great care. (adverbial phrase)

Verb কে কোথায় দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করলে adverb of place পাওয়া যায়।
He went there/home. (adverb of place)
Birds fly in the sky. (adverbial phrase)
He stayed unusually long. সে কিভাবে অবস্থান করে- unusually (adverb of manner).

Exercise :
✓ This house is fine. (Adjective- describe the subject)
✓ This shirt suits me fine. (Adverb- describe the verb)
✓ He had to pay a fine. (Noun- object of the sentence)
✓ The company was fined. (Verb- in passeve form)

অন্যদিকে preposition হলো একটি শব্দ যা একটি বাক্যের মধ্যে বিশেষ্য, সর্বনাম, বা শব্দসমূহের সাথে অন্য শব্দসমূহ যুক্ত করতে ব্যবহৃত হয়।
✓ Would you like to go for a walk? এখানে, for এর object হলো a walk এবং এটি verb go সম্পর্কে অতিরিক্ত তথ্য প্রদান করে। একইভাবে-
✓ Do you get on well with your sister?
✓ The emergency exit was concealed with a red curtain.
✓ Shilpi insisted me on my going home.

What is Parts of Speech?

The different kinds of words are called Parts of Speech. -J.C. Nesfield

Words are divided into different kinds or classes, called Parts of Speech according to thier uses. -Wren & Martin

বাক্যের অন্তর্গত প্রত্যেকটি শব্দকে Parts of Speech বলে।

What is Parts of Speech? Click here

Right Form of Verbs

If condition
Complex sentence এ
1. If + present indefinite হলে main clause এ future indefinite tense হয়।
2. If + past indefinite হলে main clause এ would/could/should+v1 হয়।
3. If + past perfect হলে main clause এ would/could/should + have + v3 হয়।

Example :
✓ If his friend had not helped him, Arif would have found it really difficult to finish the assignment.
✓ If we had taken a taxi, we wouldn't have missed the train.
✓ If I had a car, I would take you to a long drive.
✓ We would have had enough time now if you hadn't preferred to take the longer route.

No sooner had .... than
No sooner had + v3 + than + v2
✓ No sooner had the police seen the thief than they started chasing him.

Mind, would you mind, do you mind, cannot help, could not help এগুলোর পর verb এর সাথে ing যুক্ত হয়।
✓ Would you mind having a cup of coffee with me?
✓ I don't mind accepting negative feedback if it is true.

It is time, it is high time, I wish এগুলোর পর verb এর past form হয়।
✓ It is high time we returned home. আবার, I wish I এর পর be verb থাকলে were হয়।
I wish I were a child again.

Subject-এর person এবং verb-এর সঠিক form ব‌্যবহার করাই হচ্ছে uses of right form of verbs. To read details please click on the button below.

To read more about Right Form of Verbs click here

Present form, Past form and Past Participle form of Verbs

ইংরেজি ভাষায় verb-এর তিনটি form আছে। যথাঃ Base form/Present form, Past form এবং Past Participle form. Verb-এর Past form এবং Past Participle form গঠনের নিয়ম অনুসারে উক্ত verb গুলিকে দু'ভাগে ভাগ করা যায়।

To read Present form, Past form and Past Participle form of Strong Verbs click here Present form, Past form and Past Participle form of Weak Verbs

Voice Change

Voice change এর প্রাথমিক গুরুত্বপূর্ণ বিষয় হল verb কে কি/কাকে দ্বারা প্রশ্ন করে object চিহ্নিত করতে হবে। এর পর subject কে object এবং object কে subject এ রূপান্তরিত করে tense অনুযায়ী verb পরিবর্তন করতে হবে।

Active : He does not like people laughing at him.
Passive : People laughing at him are not liked by him.

Active : My friend kept me waiting.
Passive : I was kept waiting by my friend.

Active : Elizabeth unwillingly undertook the sea voyage.
Passive : The sea voyage was undertaken by Elizabeth unwillingly.

Narration

Narration এ reporting verb যদি present tense বা future tense এ থাকে তাহলে reported speech এর tense পরিবর্তন করার প্রয়োজন হয় না। যেমন-
Direct : She says, ‘I had a headache yesterday’.
Indirect : She says that she had a headache yesterday.

এখানে tense অপরিবর্তিত থাকে, শুধু reporting speech এর subject অনুযায়ী person পরিবর্তন হয়। আবার, reporting verb যদি past tense এ হয় তাহলে reported speech, indirect করার সময় present indefinite tense হলে পরবর্তীতে past indefinite tense, present perfect tense ও past indefinite হলে past perfect tense এবং future indefinite tense হলে would/ could/ should + v1 হবে। যেমন-

Direct : My grandfather said, ‘I will have a glass of milk at night’.
Indirect : My grandfather said that he would have a glass of milk at night.

Transformation of Sentences

Rules of Transformation of Sentences. Change affirmative into negative. Change the Assertive into Interrogative. Change the Assertive into Exclamatory. Change the Exclamatory into Assertive. Change the Assertive into Imperative. Change the Assertive into Optative. To read details please click on the button below.

To read more about Transformation of Sentences click here

Degrees and its Rules

Rules of interchanging degree of comparison. Superlative to Positive. Positive to Superlative. Superlative to Comparative. Comparative to Superlative. Comparative to Positive. Positive to Comparative. To read details please click on the button below.

To read more about Degrees and its Rules click here

Paragraph Writing for SSC, HSC and Job Exams

To read the following paragraph please click on the button below.

  1. Write a paragraph on Good Habit.
  2. Write a paragraph on Bad Habit.
  3. Write a paragraph on The Liberation War of Bangladesh.
  4. Write a paragraph on Environment Pollution.
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  1. Write a paragraph on Computer.
  2. Write a paragraph on Internet.
  3. Write a paragraph on Independence Day.
  4. Write a paragraph on The Victory Day.
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  1. Write a paragraph on Corruption.
  2. Write a paragraph on VAT.
  3. Write a paragraph on Democracy in Bangladesh.
  4. Write a paragraph on Liberty.
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  1. Write a paragraph on Freedom of The Press.
  2. Write a paragraph on Advertisement.
  3. Write a paragraph on Necessity of Learning English.
  4. Write a paragraph on Black Money.
  5. Write a paragraph on Leadership.
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  1. Write a paragraph on Globalization.
  2. Write a paragraph on Patriotism.
  3. Write a paragraph on The Greenhouse Effect.
  4. Write a paragraph on Student and Politics or Student Politics.
  5. Write a paragraph on Youth.
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  1. Write a paragraph on Trade Fair.
  2. Write a paragraph on Our Student Leaders.
  3. Write a paragraph on The Olympic Games.
  4. Write a paragraph on A Freedom Fighter.
  5. Write a paragraph on Our National Flag.
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  1. Write a paragraph on Mobile Phone.
  2. Write a paragraph on Bangladesh in the 21st Century.
  3. Write a paragraph on International Mother Language Day.
  4. Write a paragraph on Acid Throwing.
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